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The first section works like a header, having the msgid and msgstr especially empty. It describes the file encoding, plural forms and other things that are less relevant.

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The second section translates a simple string from English to Brazilian Portuguese, and the third does the same, but leveraging string replacement from sprintf so the translation may contain the user name and visit date. The last section is a sample of pluralization forms, displaying the singular and plural version as msgid in English and their corresponding translations as msgstr 0 and 1 following the number given by the plural rule.

The plural forms always have two msgid singular and plural , so it is advised not to use a complex language as the source of translation. As you might have noticed, we are using as source ID the actual sentence in English.

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That msgid is the same used throughout all your. The Gettext manual favors the first approach as, in general, it is easier for translators and users in case of trouble. That is how we will be working here as well. However, the Symfony documentation favors keyword-based translation, to allow for independent changes of all translations without affecting templates as well. In a typical application, you would use some Gettext functions while writing static text in your pages.

Those sentences would then appear in. One of the great advantages Gettext has over custom framework i18n packages is its extensive and powerful file format. This guide is based on PoEdit 1. Now, save the file - using that directory structure we mentioned as well. After setting those points it will run a scan through your source files to find all the localization calls. After every scan PoEdit will display a summary of what was found and what was removed from the source files.

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Save it and a. As you may have noticed before, there are two main types of localized strings: simple ones and those with plural forms. The first ones have simply two boxes: source and localized string. Tip: you may right-click a translation line and it will hint you with the source files and lines where that string is being used. On the other hand, plural form strings include two boxes to show the two source strings, and tabs so you can configure the different final forms.

Whenever you change your sources and need to update the translations, just hit Refresh and Poedit will rescan the code, removing non-existent entries, merging the ones that changed and adding new ones. It may also try to guess some translations, based on other ones you did. It is also useful if you have a translation team and someone tries to write something they are not sure about: just mark Fuzzy, and someone else will review later.


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From that menu, you can also open parts of the UI that allow you to leave contextual information for translators if needed. It happens the first time it is read, and then, to update it, you might need to restart the server. Many custom i18n libraries from frameworks use something similar to t as well, to make translated code shorter. However, that is the only function that sports a shortcut. It is just a field in the. You need to include there the specifications of those new functions, following a specific format :.

After including those new rules in the. Dependency injection is a software design pattern that allows the removal of hard-coded dependencies and makes it possible to change them, whether at run-time or compile-time. This quote makes the concept sound much more complicated than it actually is. Dependency Injection is providing a component with its dependencies either through constructor injection, method calls or the setting of properties.

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It is that simple. Here we have a Database class that requires an adapter to speak to the database. We instantiate the adapter in the constructor and create a hard dependency.

This makes testing difficult and means the Database class is very tightly coupled to the adapter. Now we are giving the Database class its dependency rather than creating it itself.

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These are the complex problems that Dependency Injection solves. In terms of Dependency Injection, this means loosening our dependencies by controlling and instantiating them elsewhere in the system. For years, PHP frameworks have been achieving Inversion of Control, however, the question became, which part of control are we inverting, and where to?

For example, MVC frameworks would generally provide a super object or base controller that other controllers must extend to gain access to its dependencies. This is Inversion of Control, however, instead of loosening dependencies, this method simply moved them. Dependency Injection allows us to more elegantly solve this problem by only injecting the dependencies we need, when we need them, without the need for any hard coded dependencies at all. The Single Responsibility Principle is about actors and high-level architecture. The largest benefit of this approach is that it enables improved code reusability.

By designing our class to do just one thing, we can use or re-use it in any other program without changing it. Practically speaking, this means that we should write classes that implement and adhere to interfaces , then type-hint against those interfaces instead of specific classes. The largest benefit of this approach is that we can very easily extend our code with support for something new without having to modify existing code, meaning that we can reduce QA time, and the risk for negative impact to the application is substantially reduced. We can deploy new code, faster, and with more confidence.

The Liskov Substitution Principle is about subtyping and inheritance. For example, if we have a FileInterface interface which defines an embed method, and we have Audio and Video classes which both implement the FileInterface interface, then we can expect that the usage of the embed method will always do the thing that we intend.

If we later create a PDF class or a Gist class which implement the FileInterface interface, we will already know and understand what the embed method will do. The largest benefit of this approach is that we have the ability to build flexible and easily-configurable programs, because when we change one object of a type e.

For example, a Car or Bus class would be interested in a steeringWheel method, but a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would not. Conversely, a Motorcycle or Tricycle class would be interested in a handlebars method, but a Car or Bus class would not. There is no need to have all of these types of vehicles implement support for both steeringWheel as well as handlebars , so we should break-apart the source interface. The Dependency Inversion Principle is about removing hard-links between discrete classes so that new functionality can be leveraged by passing a different class.

Do not depend on concretions. We can easily refactor the above example to follow this principle. There are several benefits to the Database class now depending on an interface rather than a concretion.

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Consider that we are working in a team and the adapter is being worked on by a colleague. In our first example, we would have to wait for said colleague to finish the adapter before we could properly mock it for our unit tests. An even bigger benefit to this method is that our code is now much more scalable. If a year down the line we decide that we want to migrate to a different type of database, we can write an adapter that implements the original interface and injects that instead, no more refactoring would be required as we can ensure that the adapter follows the contract set by the interface.

The first thing you should understand about Dependency Injection Containers is that they are not the same thing as Dependency Injection. A container is a convenience utility that helps us implement Dependency Injection, however, they can be and often are misused to implement an anti-pattern, Service Location. Injecting a DI container as a Service Locator in to your classes arguably creates a harder dependency on the container than the dependency you are replacing. It also makes your code much less transparent and ultimately harder to test. Most modern frameworks have their own Dependency Injection Container that allows you to wire your dependencies together through configuration.

What this means in practice is that you can write application code that is as clean and de- coupled as the framework it is built on. Many times your PHP code will use a database to persist information. You have a few options to connect and interact with your database.


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The recommended option until PHP 5. Native drivers are great if you are only using one database in your application, but if, for example, you are using MySQL and a little bit of MSSQL, or you need to connect to an Oracle database, then you will not be able to use the same drivers. The mysql extension for PHP is incredibly old and has been superseded by two other extensions:. Not only did development stop long ago on mysql , but it was deprecated as of PHP 5.

To save digging into your php. Even if you are not using PHP 7. Not only is that a gross oversimplification, it misses out on the advantages that mysqli provides, such as parameter binding, which is also offered in PDO. More importantly, PDO allows you to safely inject foreign input e. This is possible using PDO statements and bound parameters. This ID should be used to fetch a user record from a database. This is the wrong way to do this:.

4.1 Back to the Basics

This is terrible code. You are inserting a raw query parameter into a SQL query. This will get you hacked in a heartbeat, using a practice called SQL Injection. This is correct code. It uses a bound parameter on a PDO statement. This escapes the foreign input ID before it is introduced to the database preventing potential SQL injection attacks. You should also be aware that database connections use up resources and it was not unheard-of to have resources exhausted if connections were not implicitly closed, however this was more common in other languages.

Using PDO you can implicitly close the connection by destroying the object by ensuring all remaining references to it are deleted, i. When developers first start to learn PHP, they often end up mixing their database interaction up with their presentation logic, using code that might look like this:.

While there are many other solutions to doing this - depending on if you prefer OOP or functional programming - there must be some element of separation. That is a good start. Create a simple.