Manual Jus Culmense ex ultima revisione, oder das vollständige culmische Recht, mit Anmerkungen

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In , the Teutonic Knights built the Burg Marienwerder and established the town of Marienwerder now Kwidzyn the following year. In , the Bishopric of Pomesania received both the town and castle from the Teutonic Order as fiefs, and the settlement became the seat of the Bishops of Pomesania within Prussia. A Teutonic knight, Werner von Orseln, was murdered in Marienb.

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The law provides for self-government. It replaced the personal rule of tribal monarchs descending from ancient times or the rule of the regional dukes and kings that had been established by Charlemagne. The latter held all of his aristocratic vassals personally responsible for the defence, health and welfare of the tribesmen settled on their estates, including the towns. Eventually about adopted a government based on the law. It still serves as a foundation for German town laws in many of those cities. On July 1, this municipality celebrated 80 years of granting this community July 1, the status of city.

Today the center of the city of Czersk in is the Village Square. The infrastructure was recently modernized, rebuilt roadway system, modern center of commerce, seats sport hall, water and sewage treatment systems, railroad station. The historical treasure is Neo-baroque-style parish church. The oldest described and documented church is from the year of The recent church was erected between based on the project of F. The local industries include timber processing mills, brick factory, paper plant, woving plant, furniture, metallurgy and factory of agricultural equipment, brewery, large trout farm, and food processing.

The craft and commerce are flourishing. History The most significant historical dates of City of Czersk: 13th century — The e. In the 15th century, the Prussian Confederation was founded to oppose the policy of the Teutonic Order. During that time, Danzig continued with its own set of law system, which its self-government. The recognition of this law, and other Danzig's privileges, by the King of Poland was a prerequisite for allying with him resp. The Second Peace of Thorn of confirmed the right.

Its population was ,, as of December In the ea. The settlement was then part of Poland, until the Teutonic invasion in the 14th century. Located at a formerly important crossroad, the Teutonic Knights built a fortification here, and in the town received Kulm law city rights. No traces remain of the castle, but remnants of the medieval city wall have been incorporated in some later houses.

Since then the town was part of the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland, until the First Partition of Poland in , when it was annexed by Prussia. Up until the 20th century, the town economy consisted mostly of fishing, agriculture, crafts and local trade.

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It was the centre of a cloth manufacturing indus. The village has a population of It is situated in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship since ; previously it was in Olsztyn Voivodeship — It is documented in a manuscript by Luther von Braunschweig in and its first names are knonw as Ylavia, Ylaw oraz Ilow[1]. This location makes it a popular vacation area. History Liw probably started as a gord guarding the ford across Liwiec river and the eastern borders of Duchy of Masovia, and the stronghold was moved from the original site to the area of the present castle, built in , in the 13th century.

Under the Masovian dukes the town was developing rapidly lying on the border with Grand Duchy of Lithuania, it became the capital of ziemia liwska 'Land of Liw' ,. During the Thirteen Years' War , the town was the sight of heavy fighting and changed hands over time. History The first permanent settlement in the area of today's Wadowice was founded in the late 10th century or early 11th century. The town was first mentioned as Wadowicze in St. Peter penny register in the years — At this time it was a trading settlement belonging to the Dukes of Silesia of the Piast Dynasty, and according to some historians it was.

It was founded in by the Teutonic Knights who had conquered the area in Before the area was part of Germany East Prussia. References M. Kaemmerer, Ortsnamenverzeichnis der Ortschaften jenseits von Oder u. It is Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area. The city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, and periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". It was considered the wealthi. She began her career on television, appearing in many anthology series during the s, before landing her breakthrough role in Gun the Man Down with James Arness and the Western film Rio Bravo , for which she received the Golden Globe Award for New Star of the Year.

As lead. The village was created in accordance with the mediaeval Kulm law and was exempted from taxes for some time, to attract more settlers, mostly from northern Masovia. A census listed 12 peasants living in the village, two years later a Prussian village inventory recorded 26 houses in Rekownitza.

By the village grew to inhabita. His interest in mathematics, astronomy, and theology led him to mentor a number of important young scholars, including Copernicus. He was a prolific writer and correspondent, publishing a number of works on the reformation of the church.

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The Giese family ancestors originated from Unna in Westphalia, near Cologne. Life and career Giese was the fifth child of Albrecht Giese and his wife, Elisabeth Langenbeck, both members of a wealthy merchant families. His paternal family had emigrated from Cologne to Danzig in the s. The city law Stadtrecht followed the incorporation of the territory into the State of the Teutonic Order in and was based on the German Kulm law Kulmer Recht by order of Ludwig von Schippe, then commander of the Teutonic Knights.

On 21 March the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights Heinrich Dusemer renewed the municipal law and together with the village of Neuendorf now Nowinka Tolkmicko obtained fishing legislation.

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In Peter Turnow, the Theologian later burned at the stake as a heretic in , was born here. On 3 April it became part of the Prussian Confederation. In the town recognized the Polish King as rightful ruler and joined Poland. In spring the Teutonic Knights crossed the river Vistula at the height of Nessau and established a fortress. The original document was lost in The set of rights in general is known as Kulm law. In , due to frequent flooding,[4] it was relocated to the present site of the Old Town. In Franciscan friars settled in the city, followed in by Dominicans.

In the adjacent New Town was founded predominantly to house Torun's growing population of craftsmen and artisans. In , the city or as it was then, both cities joined the mercantile Hanseatic League, and thus became an important medieval trade c.

The nearest city is Chojnice, 15 kilometres 9 miles to the east. In the Teutonic Knights purchased the settlement for silver marks from Nicholas of Poniec, a son of the voivod of Kalisz. The Order began constructing a fortress known as Schlochau on a hill east of the settlement; the fortress, the Order's second-largest after M. He was Duke of Warsaw during — under regency until and sovereign Duke of Podlachia in — It is an important railway junction with a classification yard dating to the Prussian Eastern Railway. It is also the largest town of the ethnocultural region of Kociewie.

The total population in June was 11, It was translated in the colloquial German of the time as Weihersfrey or Veyersfrey. According to the founder's will, the dwellers of the new. Starogard is the capital of Starogard County. It is also the second biggest town after Tczew of the ethnocultural region Kociewie and is populated by Kocievians.

Etymology The name Starogard means "old city" in the Pomeranian language. In the vicinity of the town, there is a 40MW wind farm.

History The town has been founded in the Old Prussian area formerly settled by the Pomesanians and conquered by the Teutonic Knights until the mid 13th century. First mentioned as Vrienstadt in a deed, the estates were ceded to the distinguished Stangen noble family by the Bishop of Pomesania in The bishop vested the settlement with Kulm law and the present-day townscape was laid out from about onwards.

Already in it held town privileges, was well develope. Pedestrian seal of Janusz I, c. In addition, he was a vassal of the Polish Kingdom since for the fief of Podlachia only during his lifetime. As the result of the partition of Masovia between him and his. The Prussian Crusade was a series of 13th-century campaigns of Roman Catholic crusaders, primarily led by the Teutonic Knights, to Christianize under duress the pagan Old Prussians. Invited after earlier unsuccessful expeditions against the Prussians by Christian Polish kings, the Teutonic Knights began campaigning against the Prussians, Lithuanians and Samogitians in By the end of the century, having quelled several Prussian Uprisings, the Knights had established control over Prussia and administered the conquered Prussians through their monastic state, eventually erasing the Prussian language, culture and pre-Christian religion by a combination of physical and ideological force.

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