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An energy storing mechanism was introduced in this robot, and the simulated and experimental results show its high efficiency Chen et al. More investigation and experiments are continuing for the control strategies and gaits optimization. Another hydraulically actuated quadruped bionic robot was developed by the Robotics Centre of Shandong University. It aims to develop a high dynamic quadruped robot which is able to work in complex terrains with good adaptability. The research team in the Beijing Institute of Technology investigated the energy consumption of the designed quadrupedal robot and the results have been published in Sha et al.

Good research outputs and achievements have been obtained in the last 20 years. Techniques such as terrain sensors, sophisticated computing, power systems, advanced actuators, and effective dynamic controls are still needed to meet the goals of ideal robot development. Gross production value of domestic mechanical industry and its growth rate. Gross production value of the fluid power areas.

Fluid power

Growth rate of the fluid power areas. Distribution of products in hydraulics in China in Distribution of application areas of hydraulic machines in China in Research centres and labs and areas and directions for fluid power and motion control in Chinese Universities. As can be seen, fluid power research is flourishing with the fast development of China. It covers a large range of fluid power engineering, from fundamental research to modern applications. More universities and industrial companies are stepping into fluid power areas, and the future of fluid power is very promising.


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Energy efficiency of fluid power systems is very significant. It has drawn the great attention of researchers and engineers Murrenhoff et al. Highly efficient fluid power machines or devices can be achieved by using components with less energy loss, smart system design approaches, and clever control. Novel fluid power control methods are also needed to improve system efficiency. The compactness and integration of fluid power machines or devices influence the development of fluid power systems. Portable and light human-scale fluid power devices, like personal service robots, lightweight fluid power components, are wanted by customers.

Modern fluid power based compact power and actuation systems will provide greater energy and user convenience.

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Future work can be continued in the area of integration and compactness of fluid power systems, which will further improve the acceptability of fluid power. Fluid power has been plagued by a number of factors that have prevented its wider acceptance NSF, Our customers always request a clean, quiet, safe, and easy to use fluid power device. Fluid power machines or devices with an effective human interface, low noise, and leakage are needed. A future requirement is to have operator control that is fast, precise, and intuitive, to have equipment that is quiet enough to not be obtrusive to the operator, and to have leaks that are so rare that they would have a negligible aesthetic and environmental impact.

Overcoming these problems will significantly improve the acceptability of fluid power and lead to its more widespread use. Koski at a fluid power conference with concern about fluid power education Koski, The same situation exists in China where not many universities or college-level engineering schools offer systematic fluid power degree courses. Our engineers working in fluid power areas have to start to learn basic knowledge after they have finished their degree courses in mechanical engineering.

They normally know about fluid power engineering with a sudden realization that they are involved in the area of fluid power applications, such as construction machinery, agriculture machinery, mining, manufacturing, and aerospace engineering. In recent years, many universities realized this problem, and started to offer higher degree courses for fluid power engineering.

Students have opportunities to study and research in this area with their final year projects, MSc projects, and PhD projects. It is a very promising development. However, most of the projects are directly based on applications, as shown in Table 3. The fundamental research in fluid power is only a small proportion in China. This will clearly limit the further development of fluid power engineering as we are still at the stage of making machines, rather than creating and understanding machines. More development in our fluid power education should be followed with an emphasis on fundamental research and applications of fluid power.

The domain of fluid power control can be expanded to a wider multi-disciplinary range, which can include efficiency, components design and optimisation, integration and compactness, environmental impact, and user-friendly and energy-efficient applications. Although we are facing challenges and competition from other areas such as mechanics or electricity, we still believe there is a very promising future as fluid power has its particular and significant advantages of high power density, high power-toweight ratio of actuators, system responsiveness, controllability, and versatility.

Skip to main content Skip to sections. Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. Engineering research in fluid power: a review. Review First Online: 13 June CLC number U In , Prof. He traced the developments of fluid power from the formulation of the fundamental law of hydrostatics to the hydraulic applications of today. In the last few decades technology has advanced and many more uses have been found for fluid power.

He addressed the challenges from the other power generation and transmission methods, such as mechanical and electrical, to fluid power and the possibilities for further development of fluid power, as shown in Fig.

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It includes three main aspects: utilization of the advantages of fluid power, compensation of the disadvantages of fluid power, and use of the advantages of other technologies to improve fluid power technology. He also concluded the presentation with a prognosis of the possible future development of fluid power, as shown in Table 1.

Efficient and smart design fluid power systems are now in very high demand worldwide. Researchers and engineers aim at developing high-efficiency, environment-friendly, and user-friendly fluid power components and systems. Open image in new window. Burrows pointed out that many of the current applications of fluid power can be traced to ideas embedded in the pioneering work of Bramah, who is best known for having invented the hydraulic press, and later contributors Burrows, The technological innovations in sensors, materials, computers, and electronics in fluid power were emphasized in his talk.

He also stated that exciting challenges and opportunities for fluid power systems lay ahead in the twenty-first century. New fields of activity could have an impact on fluid power, like micro-fabrication technologies and novel material technologies. It was clear that fluid power research will be multidisciplinary. He concluded the lecture with a summary of the factors and areas of activity in fluid power control, as shown in Fig. It well summarized and predicted the research emphasis and trends in the fluid power control area. Pressure in the system develops in reaction to the load.


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It means a pump rated for 30 MPa is capable of maintaining flow against a load of about 30 MPa with a low system pressure loss and leakage. Also, pumps have a power density about 10 times greater than an electric motor in terms of volume efficiency. Common types of hydraulic pumps are listed in Table 2. Therefore, pump design techniques, efficiency, reliability, price, and operating conditions are researched by many groups and industries.

Table 2 Common types of hydraulic pumps Watton, The common port is connected alternately to the high pressure supply port and then the reservoir, operating cyclically and rapidly such that the high and low pressures are opened alternately. The delivery port might connect to a loading system, and includes an accumulator or other capacitance in order to maintain a constant loading pressure.

R&M FLUID POWER - Engineering Capabilities

Marc Raibert, who showed in the s that robotic running could be accomplished using appropriate control strategies and algorithms Pratt, His 3D biped is shown in Fig. Later, Prof. Raibert left MIT to form Boston Dynamics which is an engineering and robotics design company that is best known for the development of BigDog, as shown in Fig. These two robots are hydraulically driven.

Hydraulic Quadruped HyQ is a versatile hydraulically powered quadruped robot, which is developed for use as a platform to study the high dynamic motions and the navigation performance of the robot in the Italian Institute of Technology, Italy. The design, component specifications, and experimental validation of the HyQ were described in Semini et al.

The John Deere forestry walking machine is a prototype harvester used in the logging process, as shown in Fig.

go It aimed to create a machine that has the maximum working stability and minimum impact on challenging terrain, such as soft, sloping, and uneven conditions. The sensors in the six articulated legs react automatically to different terrain, while the computer control system controls all walking functions including the direction of movement, the travelling speed, the step height, and gait and the ground clearance.

Each foot of the machine has a larger contact area than a conventional wheel, which spreads the load and decreases the amount of ground disturbance, while tires may leave grooves that channel rainwater and create erosion. The Timberjack measuring and control system is used to control the harvester head and the Timberjack Total Machine Control system is used to regulate the machine loader and engine functions in order to optimize machine operation.

This innovative machine provides insight into new technologies that are being developed and could possibly change the future of the logging industry and pave the way for future developments in productive and environmentally friendly machines. The researchers of the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology developed the hydraulic actuated quadruped walking robot qRT-2, which is the front drive machine with hydraulic linear actuators and wheeled back legs, as shown in Fig.

The qRT-2 weighs about 60 kg and can carry over 40 kg of payload. It successfully demonstrated the trotting gaits at a speed up to 1.


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  • A power optimization scheme on the minimization of the hydraulic flow consumption was applied in P2. Simulated and experimental results show very promising performance. All joints of the robotic legs are actuated by small size hydraulic rotary actuators, as shown in Fig.

    In the year , the gross production value of domestic mechanical industry was about A slight drop in the growth rate in can be noticed, due to the influence of the worldwide economic crisis.