Graph2DClipboard provides Java Swing actions that encapsulate all necessary clipboard functionality, namely the three operations Cut, Copy, and Paste. Copies of graph elements are created by means of a GraphCopier. CopyFactory implementation. By default, the CopyFactory implementation that is registered with the graph is used to this end.
Alternatively, the setCopyFactory method can be used to set a different CopyFactory. Graph2DClipboard also supports copy and paste functionality for grouped nodes and nested graph structures from a graph hierarchy, i. The Paste action supports pasting the contents of the clipboard directly into a group node. Through the setPasteTargetGroupPolicy byte method, the action can be customized to use one of several policies that determine the group node into which to paste.
Class LayoutMorpher is an implementation of the general animation concept defined by interface AnimationObject. It generates a smooth animation that shows a graph's transformation from one layout to another. To this end class LayoutMorpher utilizes an object of type GraphLayout that is expected to hold positional information for all graph elements from the original graph which is displayed by the associated Graph2DView. LayoutMorpher provides methods to optionally animate changes in the viewport's clipping and zoom level, or to end the animation with a specific node being in the center of the view.
To start the generated animation method execute has to be called. Note that the calculated animation highlights changes in the locations of nodes and the locations of control points of edges. Also animated are changes in width and height of nodes as well as changes in the locations and directions of node and edge labels.
More about the yFiles product family Close X. Advanced Application Logic. Note Graph elements that have been deleted a structural change and then get reinserted as the result of an undo command, are represented by their original objects. Clipboard classes hierarchy. Layout Morphing.
Whatever exists is concrete, with difference and opposition in itself". In , Nicolai A. Vasiliev extended the law of excluded middle and the law of contradiction and proposed the law of excluded fourth and logic tolerant to contradiction. Logics such as fuzzy logic have since been devised with an infinite number of "degrees of truth", represented by a real number between 0 and 1.
Intuitionistic logic was proposed by L. Brouwer as the correct logic for reasoning about mathematics, based upon his rejection of the law of the excluded middle as part of his intuitionism. Brouwer rejected formalization in mathematics, but his student Arend Heyting studied intuitionistic logic formally, as did Gerhard Gentzen. Intuitionistic logic is of great interest to computer scientists, as it is a constructive logic and sees many applications, such as extracting verified programs from proofs and influencing the design of programming languages through the formulae-as-types correspondence.
Modal logic is not truth conditional, and so it has often been proposed as a non-classical logic. However, modal logic is normally formalized with the principle of the excluded middle, and its relational semantics is bivalent, so this inclusion is disputable. What is the epistemological status of the laws of logic? What sort of argument is appropriate for criticizing purported principles of logic?
In an influential paper entitled " Is Logic Empirical? Quine , argued that in general the facts of propositional logic have a similar epistemological status as facts about the physical universe, for example as the laws of mechanics or of general relativity , and in particular that what physicists have learned about quantum mechanics provides a compelling case for abandoning certain familiar principles of classical logic: if we want to be realists about the physical phenomena described by quantum theory, then we should abandon the principle of distributivity , substituting for classical logic the quantum logic proposed by Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann.
Another paper of the same name by Michael Dummett argues that Putnam's desire for realism mandates the law of distributivity. In this way, the question, "Is Logic Empirical? The notion of implication formalized in classical logic does not comfortably translate into natural language by means of "if Eliminating this class of paradoxes was the reason for C. Lewis 's formulation of strict implication , which eventually led to more radically revisionist logics such as relevance logic. The second class of paradoxes involves redundant premises, falsely suggesting that we know the succedent because of the antecedent: thus "if that man gets elected, granny will die" is materially true since granny is mortal, regardless of the man's election prospects.
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Such sentences violate the Gricean maxim of relevance, and can be modelled by logics that reject the principle of monotonicity of entailment , such as relevance logic. Hegel was deeply critical of any simplified notion of the law of non-contradiction. It was based on Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 's idea that this law of logic also requires a sufficient ground to specify from what point of view or time one says that something cannot contradict itself.
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A building, for example, both moves and does not move; the ground for the first is our solar system and for the second the earth. In Hegelian dialectic, the law of non-contradiction, of identity, itself relies upon difference and so is not independently assertable. Closely related to questions arising from the paradoxes of implication comes the suggestion that logic ought to tolerate inconsistency.
Relevance logic and paraconsistent logic are the most important approaches here, though the concerns are different: a key consequence of classical logic and some of its rivals, such as intuitionistic logic , is that they respect the principle of explosion , which means that the logic collapses if it is capable of deriving a contradiction.
Graham Priest , the main proponent of dialetheism , has argued for paraconsistency on the grounds that there are in fact, true contradictions. The philosophical vein of various kinds of skepticism contains many kinds of doubt and rejection of the various bases on which logic rests, such as the idea of logical form, correct inference, or meaning, typically leading to the conclusion that there are no logical truths. This is in contrast with the usual views in philosophical skepticism , where logic directs skeptical enquiry to doubt received wisdoms, as in the work of Sextus Empiricus.
Friedrich Nietzsche provides a strong example of the rejection of the usual basis of logic: his radical rejection of idealization led him to reject truth as a " Innumerable beings who made inferences in a way different from ours perished".
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This position held by Nietzsche however, has come under extreme scrutiny for several reasons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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This article is about the systematic study of the form of arguments. For other uses, see Logic disambiguation. Study of inference and truth. Plato Kant Nietzsche. Buddha Confucius Averroes. Main article: Logical form. Main article: Semantics of logic. Main article: Formal system. Main article: Logic and rationality. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the section. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page.
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Main article: History of logic. Main article: Aristotelian logic. Main article: Propositional calculus. Main article: Predicate logic. Main article: Modal logic. Main articles: Informal logic and Logic and dialectic. Main article: Mathematical logic.